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How to make use of the library
2014-04-19 14:32  

一、The modern literature type

1. literature

Literature refers to text, images, audio, video, formula, code means will information, knowledge records or describe in some material on carriers, and can play Storage and dissemination of information intelligence and knowledge of all the carrier role. The law of the People's Republic GB3792 national standards, 1-83 documents in the general description of think, Literature is "record of all the carrier have knowledge

2.literature Type

Many types of modern literature, according to the different methods can be divided into different types, in order to facilitate the understanding of the characteristics of various literature, easy for us Use the following 3 kinds of methods, according to the division.

(1) according to the literature carrier forms points are:

Printing document printing document main paper to information carrier, for it is a traditional form of literature. Its advantages are easier to read on. Defect is information save Storage density low, long-term collection contains certain difficulties.

Shrink tiny literature shrink tiny literature refers to photographic materials for the carrier, use the technology, optical record data in the film, micrographics narrow copy radiographs, carrier and so on The literature of the form. Is a small volume, easy to transfer, easy to save, low cost of the literature, but want to read it would need to resort to microfilm reader.

Machine readable type machine read literature refers to the electronic computer type literature readability literature. To gradually become modern literature in literature type of the most potential.

ShiTingXing documents also say the audio-visual literature. Such as record, tape, film, etc. Its characteristic is can hear its voice, saw its form, give a person with intuitive sense.

2) according to the literature depth of process points are:

Fist literature also say the original documents. Refers to people to observe, to think or research results as the basic material form of literature. A literature will have new knowledge or new Results, is the most basic form of literature, it including academic monographs, journal articles, patent specification, science and technology, and the report, conference papers, etc.

Second literature second literature refers to a certain range, type of a document and processing, simplify, organized into systematic and entry of the literature, including Directory, indexing, abstract, etc. It is an important literature retrieval tools, is for a literature search and information about the knowledge of the form of literature was founded clues.

Three times literature literature is three times, according to a certain need to second literature for the tool, the required a document content analysis, screening concise and into literature, Reviewed, including commentary, dynamic, yearbook, manuals, encyclopedia, etc. Reference is the retrieval tools, not only have the retrieval performance, and has important reference value.

(3) according to the literature publishing form is divided into:

The book is the most common modern publication of a type, no matter how form, there is a common feature, a cover, title, within the text and installed Order form. From the time, the book publishing than newspapers cycle is long, the content is more mature, study and control system of each scientific knowledge of basic material. Books basically There are two types: one is the reader of books; A is for readers access to books (reference books).

Journal journal is a regularly or irregularly publications, the continuity of each basic same, have fixed format name, use roll period, and calendar year,, or other external published The author is numerous, content is not repeated, has many article, content, published novel cycle is short, reports the article speed, information is the main information source, intelligence.

The newspaper publishes regularly refers to the news reports, mainly of publications. Newspaper content rich, all-encompassing, the report in time, wide spread, daily, three days News, the weekly, and one day the newspapers published five times (such as Britain's "daily news of London), etc, but also the important information source. Technical report technology research and report says Investigate report or technical reports, it's the s after a emergence of an document type, is scientific and technological personnel to one subject or topic for the research report, a stage Fruit report and summary report. Technical report of contents, special deep and wide concrete is the latest research results, often can reflect a country or a professional division Research level.

The meeting is to point to in the scientific literature technical meeting selections, published or submit papers, reports, discuss records literature. In general meeting literature content Novel, quality is higher, there are very great reference value.

The patent document patent literature refers to the patent specification. The patent document after examination, approval, or in the legal protection in a certain time and has, one Set within the area has the exclusive right of invention. The patent document generally has three characteristics: one is the practical strong; 2 it is more innovative; Three is to report in time. Patent literature In addition to the patent specification, including patent application, the classification of patent, patent index, patent reports periodicals The government publications is to point to governments and its subordinate organizations of various literature published or published information. In nature, see could be divided into two forms: one for administrative documents, including in the government gazette, various government legal documents, government policy Strategy, instructions, statistics, etc; resolution 2 technology literature, including technical report, survey report, popular science material and technology policy, the literature material.

Degree thesis is to point to higher colleges, scientific research units of undergraduate and graduate students or other personnel for the acquisition of degree and the paper put forward. Degree thesis research than the problem A special deep system, detailed research, has some reference value, but the paper quality high and low is differ.

Standard document is standardization organization or relevant organization industrial and agricultural products and parts of the quality, specification, process of production and testing method of technical regulations, is doing Production and construction together basis. Standard document has the international standard, regional standards and national standards and trade standards, the enterprise standard etc. Standard document has many characteristics, The production process of a unified, clear applicable range and uses, effectiveness and have some strong patches.

The product sample including product sample, product manual, product catalogue, etc, is to finalize the design product performance, the structure, principle, utility, use method and product specifications For instructions. Its characteristic is the amount, distributed, actual effect is strong, metabolism frequently.

Technology archives is production and construction of science and technology department in technical activities which have certain specific engineering object, the technical documents, drawings, charts, pictures, The original records of the original or duplicate the and so on, it is the production of construction and the scientific research work to accumulate experience, learn it and improve quality of important literature. Technical files are Has the secrecy and internal characteristic. In addition to the outside, still have a press release, manuscript, maps and other forms of literature

二 、Library Catalogue

1.catalogue

Directory description is a group of related articles and according to a certain sequence and become a reveals and report literature tools. As a library catalog is through the revealing books The content of library collection to promote the book, to the purpose of the reading guidance. The reader through the library catalog to learn about the library books, books, in order to confirm the content retrieval Books.

2.Directory of the basic content

Directory is the basic content of the directory description item, was recorded literature content, form and appearance material characteristics. Including title and responsible, version, publishing, carrier Form, CongBian (series features), note (added that the standard), literature, and abstract, etc.

Examples :

The Chinese modem vocational education thought, the number LiuGuiLin research/the. Beijing: higher education press, 1997.10 (college of liberal arts, dr library; 6 / XiGuangQing Ed.) ISBN 7-04-00 6324-7 i.... II. Liu... III. Education-education thought-technology research-China-modern IV. G710-092

3.The type of the catalogue in the library

(1) according to the use object for official directory and readers into directory Official directory is for library work persons to carry out internal work use directory. Readers for readers in the directory is used when borrowing issue directory.

(2) according to Chinese types are divided into Chinese books, western, Japanese, etc directory.

(3) according to reveal the characteristics of literature into classification catalogues, title catalog, responsible catalogue and the subject catalogue

Classified catalogue is according to the literature of the contents of the scientific system organized directory. Can help us from subject content retrieval literature and reveals the inner relationship between subjects, Tell us what are the subject of our literature, and to find other subjects to draw inferences can of literature, is the main directory. Readers directory Our library classification catalogues Organization basis, are mainly on the basis of "Chinese library classification" of the classification system organization of the arrangement

Title and says the title catalog, directory according to the literature of the title is the word organized directory. This feature from the title specific literature retrieval.

Our library catalogue, main basis by the contemporary Chinese dictionary words sequence arrangement of the organization. According to the title of each Chinese pinyin, word for word Compare the sequence in an arrangement.

Responsible and say the authors directory, directory according to the literature is due to name the word organized directory. Specific literature retrieval from responsible and focus on the same collection practices Let all the writings of the.

The subject catalogue is according to the theme of the literature content words organized directory. Can the theme of the paper from literature retrieval literature and focus on directly across the various disciplines The same theme of literature. By directory carrier is divided into fund directory, books type directory, machine readable catalog, micrographics directory, etc.

三、Books, journals and search method. The bent frame

1.Bent method

Library shelves of books, are many according to certain easy reference method of sequence has. The arrangement, the most commonly used methods are various methods have points The bent frame method, the title of the bent frame method, fixed the bent frame method, code bent method, etc. Ordinary book many use classification method, the bent frame our common library books and magazines GeDingBen According to the classification of the method are bent frame. The classification is based on the "Chinese library classification".

2.Method of searching

Find the method of collection books has two kinds commonly, one is directly to the free access to search; shelf stack Another method is to use catalogue to check to find books Cable, again according to the number of codes to stacks for.

When we use the open-shelf directly to the stacks of books, the first to find sure to find the book should be in the "Chinese library classification" which of the basic categories Then according to the directions on the bookshelf find corresponding categories in the shelves of position, and find the specific to search categories, then according to the position to decide once back Or from hind to sequential search, find the books until need.

When we use our search books bibliography, the first according to need and habits make sure to use the type of bibliography, our current two books set for use, one Is classified catalogue; Another is the title directory.If use classification, according to find the contents of the book, and determine the content of books of "Chinese library classification should be" in which class, and according to the classification guidance the categories list, search and search check class in the specific needs of your book, write down card cable card number, and finally to the bookshelf in check the bookIf use of title, the directory according to the title of the book to find Chinese pinyin To the title in the directory according to Chinese pinyin sequential search, then write down the call, to the bookshelf book. Categories for subject system and books by nature; search books book Name lookup suitable for specific book search.

四、Retrieval tools and reference types

1.Retrieval tools

Retrieval tools simple speaking, is used to search for clues to the accumulation and literature of tools. From different angles can be divided into DuoZhong type, literature reference book industry and technology personnel Used to press, is divided into: way will reference books directory, index and abstract type etc.

Directory directory description content general reflect books, authors, such as the name published external characteristic, but some catalogues have abstract, characteristics of the literature published in nature Form of literature, reveals the description unit general characteristics. Directory is a lot of more phyletic, such as the national bibliography and local literature, personal writing books bibliography; Publishing directory, and recommend directory, special directory; Catalogue, union catalog, and so on.The main functions of the directory, one is the academic reference function, it is a period or a range of academic and summarized Summarize, can reflect a certain period the face of a subject; two it is intelligence function, is reporting on the latest research results of dynamic, science and technology, provide clues to an important tool of literature; three Is the education function, which is mainly embodied in the reading guidance research, popularizing science and culture knowledge knowledge education, etc.

The index index is the literature will, words, comparison of the theme, names, places, events, and other things such as name, according to certain method, and point out the layout from A kind of retrieval tool. The index can be divided into title index and content index. Comparison of the index is known as the "record" problem, questions will be recorded in the literature that the article title is one analysis Out, and according to certain methods of layout index. Up Content index is contained in documents will be the names of the people, places, things such as name and the index of excerpts from out, Can be more deeply to reveal the content of the document. The index's main function is to provide literature, the literature retrieval clues to speed, reflect problems in depth.

Abstract abstract is brief and to the text in the original text of the pick, according to some reports and the arrangement of way up literature reveals the tools. According to the abstract of auspicious slightly Divided into reports of abstract and instructions sex abstract. Sexual abstract, is to show the literature of the title of the added that the main confessed the literature review, the scope, the purpose, the readers of this paper Content don't misunderstand for the principle. Reports of sexual abstract, is creative content of literature reveals, including all of the contents of the literature range, purpose, research methods and research directions Method, the conclusion and related data, formula, charts, and so on, in some extent could instead of reading the original text.

2.Reference books type

Reference books according to certain need to is specific arrangement forms and retrieval method, for people quickly provide certain aspects of the basic knowledge or material clues for inspection Certain types of books.

Reference books have knowledge and ZiLiaoXing and the characteristics of the class abstracts. Enormous credibility high, wide to receive, to lead, in bo argument, to express precisely and concise guide The reliable sources, sangmyung, and can provide DuoZhong retrieval way is to find out an indispensable tool in presenting information. People often put the reference book is called the open knowledge treasure Library of a key.

According to the content of the reference points comprehensive, ZhuanKeXing; According to the Chinese don't points, foreign language; According to the editing style and function points have a dictionary, dictionary, yearbook, hands Books, books, ZhengShu, encyclopedia, table spectrum, % 26 quot;, catalogue, etc.

Reference books have knowledge and ZiLiaoXing and the characteristics of the class abstracts. Enormous credibility high, wide to receive, to lead, in bo argument, to express precisely and concise guide The reliable sources, sangmyung, and can provide DuoZhong retrieval way is to find out an indispensable tool in presenting information. People often put the reference book is called the open knowledge treasure Library of a key.

According to the content of the reference points comprehensive, ZhuanKeXing; According to the Chinese don't points, foreign language; According to the editing style and function points have a dictionary, dictionary, yearbook, hands Books, books, ZhengShu, encyclopedia, table spectrum;, catalogue, etc.

The dictionary, dictionary dictionary is the explanation word form, sound and meaning as the reference books; The dictionary is the concept of words that give priority to, the significance and the usage of the reference books, Can be divided into Chinese sex dictionary (such as the contemporary Chinese dictionary), comprehensive dictionary (such as ") of ji and professional dictionary (such as "the accounting dictionary), etc.

Yearbook, manual yearbook is system at home and abroad with records reflect major event, the various disciplines progress, new knowledge and new material, provides readers the reference book review search. Year after year, continuous, have published editor comprehensive and professional, is looking for one year the important tool of statistical data. Manual is often need to find the literature collection, material Or professional knowledge tool, have comprehensive (such as the people's manual "); But most of the professional (such as the China economic yearbook), etc.

ZhengShu, books certificate is special Chronicles the judgments of the system changes and evolution of the political, economic, and cultural development situation of the books. "Canon" is standard system, "Chapters" is the articles of association, and the judgments, which is in the floorboard of all system, law. In the series of ancient material, by category, for the arrangement of investigations, citing the use JiYi or field.The earliest books in The Three Kingdoms period WeiWen emperor CaoPi WangXiang life as the emperor "(at the largest books, is Ming emperor zhu XieJin life as government wanted the yongle big Canon ", the largest surviving is kangxi emperor yongzheng, occasion of the compendium of.

Encyclopedia of knowledge as the name suggests, is a club or a certain kinds of complete reference book knowledge. Encyclopedia both for us to learn to read, write and broaden their horizons Improve the knowledge, and because it has a large number of data collection and a complete set of retrieval tools, so we can offer a convenient retrieval characteristics.

The calendar table, chronologies calendar table is for conversion different year, month, day of the reference books, such as the history of Chinese and western to calendar. Timeline for different calendar is the reference books in search The simple, such as the Christian in the history of China, the Christian table "; Also have both Christian and the chronicle, such as the Chinese and foreign history timeline ". The calendar table, timeline for learning history, access to history Cadastre, all is the necessary auxiliary tools.

Map, maps of the earth's surface is map things and phenomena in drawing the epitome of the plot. Can divide common maps and historical map two kinds. Atlas is based on image representation things form Like the reference books. Among them is the history map collection important historical events drawings, real photos, portrait and precious historical documents, pictures to reveal the cultural relics Or the image of the things, deepen the understanding of the history of the tools.

 
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